explain the process of how substance abusers may become cross-tolerant when using and/or abusing two different substances.

explain the process of how substance abusers may become cross-tolerant when using and/or abusing two different substances.

Understanding the classifications of substances and the differences in their effects on the body will help give you clarity on the nature of addiction and broaden your knowledge base about the common addiction issues you may encounter when working with substance abusers.

In this Discussion, you will continue your examination of common substances of abuse and their properties and effects on the body, as well as their processes of addiction.

To prepare for this Discussion:

• Review this week’s Learning Resources, focusing on the properties, physiological and psychological effects, and processes of addiction of hallucinogens, inhalants, and steroids.

• Consider the properties of the various substances, their physiological and psychological effects on the body, and the process of addiction that occurs with each.

• Review the DVD segment, “Substances and Addictions,” with Dr. Tom Cargiulo, focusing on the information Dr. Cargiulo discusses about hallucinogens (psychedelics).

• Select two substances to compare, one each from two of the three following categories: hallucinogens, inhalants, and steroids.

• Reflect on how the substances are similar to and different from one another in terms of both physiological and psychological effects.

With these thoughts in mind:

Discussion Question 1: a comparison (similarities and differences) of the physiological effects, psychological effects, and addictive properties of two substances (one each from two of the three following categories: hallucinogens, inhalants, and steroids).
Discussion Question 2

Poly-Substance Abuse and Cross-Tolerance

You have learned a great deal about the properties, physiological and psychological effects, and processes of addiction for various substances of abuse. In this Discussion, you will draw on that information to analyze the risks and implications of poly-substance abuse as well as how cross-tolerance to substances may develop.

To prepare for this Discussion:

• Review this week’s Learning Resources, focusing on the information about poly-substance abuse and cross-tolerance.

• Reflect on the complexity and associated risks and implications of poly-substance abuse.

• Consider how cross-tolerance to various substances may develop.

With these thoughts in mind:

Discussion 2 an analysis of the risks and implications of poly-substance abuse. Then, explain the process of how substance abusers may become cross-tolerant when using and/or abusing two different substances.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

Resources
Course Text: Substance Abuse Counseling

Chapter 3, “The Major Substances of Abuse and the Body” (pp. 79–92 and 96–97 only)

Article:Lankenau, S. E., & Clatts, M. C. (2005). Patterns of polydrug use among ketamine injectors in New York City. Substance Use & Misuse, 40(9–10), 1381-1397.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Article: Funk, D., Marinelli, P. W., & Lê, A. D. (2006). Biological processes underlying co-use of alcohol and nicotine: Neuronal mechanisms, cross-tolerance, and genetic factors. Alcohol Research & Health, 29(3), 186–192.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Article: Stone, A. L., Storr, C. L., & Anthony, J. C. (2006). Evidence for a hallucinogen dependence syndrome developing soon after onset of hallucinogen use during adolescence. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 15(3), 116–130.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.