# Explain the relationship between generalizability and sampling and representativeness and sampling.

Explain the relationship between generalizability and sampling, and representativeness and sampling.

Define each of the following, and be able to identify them in examples.
Sample
Population
Elements (cases)
Sampling frame
Explain the relationship between generalizability and sampling, and representativeness and sampling.
Define and describe probability sampling methods.

Define and describe each of the following types of probability sampling. Be able to determine when to use, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of both.

Simple random sampling
Systematic random sampling
Stratified random sampling
Proportionate stratified sampling
Disproportionate stratified sampling
Multistage cluster sampling
Define and describe nonprobability sampling methods.

Define and describe each of the following types of nonprobability sampling. Be able to determine when to use, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of both.

Availability sampling
Quota sampling
Purposive sampling
Snowball sampling

Chapter 6 – Causation and Experiments (pp. 231 – 257)
Identify and describe the five (5) criteria that should be considered when exploring whether a causal connection exists. Also, know which three (3) are considered necessary and most important for identifying a causal effect.
Define and describe true experiments. Identify and describe their three (3) core features. Be able to determine when to use, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of both.
Define quasi-experimental designs. Also, define and describe two (2) common types of quasi-experimental designs – nonequivalent control groups and before-and-after designs (i.e., time series design). Be able to determine when to use, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of both.

Define and describe the following threats to internal validity (concern conclusions about causality). Be able to identify in scenarios, and know which designs each are most commonly associated with.

Selection bias
Endogenous change
External events
Define and describe the features of the following types of nonexperimental designs – cross-sectional, repeated cross-sectional, and longitudinal. Be able to determine when to use, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each.

Chapter 7 – Survey Research (pp. 294 – 322)

Define survey research. Discuss why it is attractive.
Consider writing survey questions.

Define and describe open-ended and close-ended questions. Be able to determine when to use, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Discuss the importance of clear and meaningful survey close-ended question construction, particularly how it relates to following. Be able to identify these problems.
Confusing phrasing and vagueness
Negatives and double-negatives
Double-barreled questions
Discuss the importance of clear and meaningful survey close-ended question construction, as it relates to the following. Be able to identify these in examples.
Mutually exclusive response choices
Exhaustive response categories
Likert-type response categories
Define and describe the features of each of the following survey designs. Be able to determine when to use, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each.

Telephone surveys
In-person interviews
Electronic surveys
Discuss the ethical issues in survey research.
Chapter 8 – Qualitative Methods (pp. 353 – 388)

Define qualitative methods. Describe the features of qualitative research (i.e., field research).

Define and describe the features of the following qualitative research designs. Be able to determine when to use, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each.

Participant observation
Complete observation
Participant and observation
Covert participation
Intensive interviewing
Focus groups

Discuss the importance of building and maintaining relationships, documenting personal experiences and managing the personal dimensions when conducting qualitative research.
Discuss the ethical issues in qualitative research.